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Energy efficiency presents a notable challenge in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) as the sensor nodes, which are responsible for collecting and transmitting data, operate under limited energy capacity. The sensor nodes must generate as much power as possible to make the network last longer. Generally, every sensor node in a WSN has batteries with limited capacities. It can be challenging to replace this little battery at times due to its vast number and numerous environmental issues. Therefore, it is believed that energy-efficient communication is essential for prolonging the lifespan of a sensor node. This work suggests a brand-new routing protocol clustering method that is energy efficient. Initially, the bamboo growth optimizer novel metaheuristic method was built on differential equations of bamboo growth and the Gaussian mixture model (BFGO). Secondly, a Cluster Centered Cluster Head Selection Algorithm (C3HA) of a routing protocol (BFGO-C3HA) is presented, with the encoding method and fitness function being revised. This algorithm is based on the BFGO technique. It can reduce transmission distance and increase energy efficiency. The results of simulations show that applying BFGO-C3HA can efficiently lessen the sensor network's energy consumption while increasing the amount of information transmitted to extend the network's lifetime.